ERI and GPR Applications Illustrating the Services

1. Example of sediment mapping using ERI profiles, calibrated to local geology, penetrating to 50 m depth.
2. Example of identifying sediment contacts using 3D ERI, calibrated to local geology, to 14 m depth.

Wetland/Peatland Functioning
Example GPR and low/moderate-resolution ERI profiles of a boreal peatland penetrating ~ 9 m.
2. Example GPR and ERI profiles of tropical peatland penetrating ~9 m.
3. Example ERI profile of buried wetland under a highway penetrating ~125 ft.

Sediment Prospecting for Aggregate
Example of a glacial deposit cross-section based on ERI confirmed by coring data.
2. Example of estimating sand and gravel deposit heterogeneities, basal contact and volume using 3D ERI to 9 m depth.
3. Example of integrating GPR and ERI to map alluvial sand and gravel variations and depth in cross-section.
4. Example of detailed lithofacies mapping of heterogeneous sand and gravel deposit using GPR.

Karst Hazards
Two examples that integrate ERI, GPR, and trenching to characterize sinkholes.
2. Example ERI image of sinkhole and cave system confirmed by drilling.

Road, Dam, and Slope Degradation and Stability
Example GPR profile of road section indicating components of base, subbase, and subgrade layers.
2. Examples demonstrating identification of rebar and voids in GPR profiles of concrete.

Buried Utilities
Examples of GPR profiles demonstrating identification of subsurface pipes with various contents.

Archaeological Features
Example of study showing the value of a composite image of GPR reflection amplitude across a burial mound.